smart solar charging behaviour Image

smart solar charging behaviour

SmartSolar MPPT 100/20 minimum PV voltage for 48 V battery

I have a Lifepo4 battery pack with 51.2 nominal voltage which I want to charge with a SmartSolar MPPT 100/20. I have read about the +5 V minimum PV voltage in order for the solar panels to charge. However I am still a little uncertain as what the recommended minimum PV voltage is in order for having a well-functioning system.
1. Is the +5 V minimum PV voltage requirement the same for 48 V batteries as for 12 and 24 volt batteries? So the minimum PV voltage for charging a 48 V battery with 51.2 V nominal is 56.2 V.
2. If using 3 panels in series, each having a voltage of 19.8 V at maximum output giving 59.4 V, will that be sufficiently high voltage or is it recommended to have an even higher voltage?


dagfroderekdal asked
kevgermany commented ·

2 Answers

Upgrade to next stage - What is my options?


I have been using the following configuration for some time but now my requirements have become larger. Can anyone point me in the direction as to what I would need now to upgrade for my newer requirements please.

Currently: Daytime requirement approx 180Watt per hour. Nighttime is approx 180watt per hour for about 3hours.

I use 4 solar panels up to 260W each (panels are 51.25Vmp 5.07A IMP) currently configured in parallel being used. I have two more of the same panels not currently being used.

2 x 120AH deep cycle batteries in parallel for 12Vdc.

1 x 300W 12vdc - 240vac inverter.

1 x Victron SmartSolar 75/15 Solar charge controller.

New Requirement:

Up to 1500 Watt max required. This will need to be for Daytime using a 700W air conditioner plus still about 180W for the computer and to be able to run for about 6 hours nighttime occasionally using the 700W air conditioner along with the computer of about 180W as well.

I am pretty sure a 1500W inverter will work for my power needs, but I am not sure what charger and battery bank size Ah I will require to ensure the batteries always get fully charged through the daytime as to allow for approx 6 hours use in the night time.

Any ideas and suggestions appreciated, please.


John asked
kevgermany answered ·

1 Answer

solar charger not charging?

My solar charge controller shows zero charging input some cloudy days. Has enyone experienced something similar? is it normal? i have attached two solar charger in my battery each of them providing power from a different string; i have also connected a smart battery sensor that provides data to the chargers. am i doing something wrong here? thanks for your input, cheers

greekgeek asked
klim8skeptic commented ·

4 Answers

Kein Output - Batterie lädt

Hallo liebe Community,

Meine Solaranlage lädt und speist die Batterie jedoch wird kein Output angezeigt. Jedoch kommt immer noch Strom bei den Verbrauchern an jedoch blinkt fast konstant der Warnblinker des Wohnmobils der den Batteriestand/Output misst .

Der fehler ist aufgetreten nachdem die Motorbatterie entkoppelt wurde um Reparaturen durchzuführen. Nachdem abkoppeln wird kein Output angezeigt in der App und der Batterie modus ist konstant Bulk.

Leider bin ich selbst nicht erfahren weder wissend was Elektronik angeht.. Danke für eure Weiterhilfe!


elain asked

0 Answers

Can the IP22 charger be programmed to act like the Smart Solar charge controller

I have a Smart Solar 100 | 20 charge controller which gets power from a 165W panel. I also have an IP22 charger which connects to the battery via the same bus as the charge controller. The battery is a 100Ah Battleborn lithium, and on the negative of the battery I have a SmartShunt installed.

When not connected to mains, getting only solar power, the charge controller powers loads first, and uses extra to charge the battery when necessary, otherwise it cuts power from the panel. With sufficient sunlight, most of the time it just feeds about 9W of power to cover parasitic draw from a few devices in my RV that always run. The battery just stays at 100%, unless the sun goes down or behind a cloud in which case it draws from the battery. When charging, the solar charge controller starts at a relatively low voltage and ramps up slowly, until the battery is almost full, then it ramps up pretty fast until it peaks at 14.5V (configured), holds it there for 30 min, then drops to 13.5V. The SmartShunt is configured to recognize anything above 14.4V for 3 minutes as an indication of full charge. This is all great, just exactly what I expected.

But it is completely different on the IP22. If I take the solar out of the equation by cutting the panel off, the IP22 charges the battery by immediately raising the voltage to 14.5V and holding it there until it determines (presumably by current) that the battery is full. Then it holds for a bit (not sure how this is configured), then drops to float voltage (configured as 13.5V) and then drops a few hours later to storage voltage (configured as 13.5V). For whatever reason, this is not enough to convince the SmartShunt the battery is full. So the SOC value drifts over time. This is the first problem I'd like tips on solving.

The second issue is how the IP22 handles load. By which I mean it doesn't, really. At least not small loads. The 9W draw comes directly from the battery, and after some threshold is reached the IP22 wakes up, adds power to the battery, then goes back to sleep. It spends a lot of time cycling quickly between the different profile steps. This process seems to work, I guess, but it's a bit ugly to watch in my Grafana plots, and it seems much less elegant than the way the solar charge controller handles the mix of load and charging. I'd like to know if this behavior is configurable, or if it is inherent to the design of the IP22.

In my perfect world the IP22 would have a battery profile that looked a lot like the solar charge controller would look like with perfect sun at maximum capacity. And the SmartShunt would correctly reset to 100% SOC regardless of which charger tops off the battery.

Please, if you have any tips on what I may be missing here, I would sincerely appreciate it!

davidstults asked
Alexandra edited ·

1 Answer

Are PV contactors required

I asked this question in the Mppt section but it never showed up???
My BMS can turn my batteries off under certain [out of spec] conditions. My concern [although recently lowered] is when/if batteries are turned off power to my MPPT controller[s] will also be cut [batteries are literally turned off] but the PV power will continue to be supplied to the [BlueSolar 150/60] controller. while this "condition" will signal an alarm from the BMS If I am away the "condition" could exist for several days. I know some [cheaper] CC's aren't capable of this situation without damage. I have manual cut-offs on the PV [both legs] would contactor[s] be REQUIRED to isolate PV if/when battery power is off and if so can just one PV leg be opened [1 contactor vs two]. I understand the safety concerns about disconnecting PV first and the need for battery first for initial set-up. I have heard both absolutely yes and absolutely no on other forums so I'm hoping I can get a definitive answer here. Thanks

dconn22 asked
wkirby answered ·

1 Answer

Smart Solar MPPT doesn't resume charging after full charge is met


My Smart Solar MPPT 100/50 charges my 4 x 100ah lithium batteries by midday at the moment and solar charging is terminated when the full charge threshold is met.

This is my first season with uprated solar panels (now using 2 x 60 volt 330watt Hitachi panels) and I have never seen full charge characteristics before and I am not sure what the correct behaviour should be, but I am noticing that after several hours, my batteries are discharging and the solar controller doesn't cut back in and resume charging.

If I go into the mppt settings and disable charging and then re-enable it again, I see normal charging resume again.

What is considered normal behaviour once the batteries are starting to become discharged, for example down to 95%?

Dave asked
redsam commented ·

5 Answers

Does the dashboard view show actual Solar PV Wattage?

Dashboard showing a very low PV wattage, and its a clear sunny day.

Is this because the MPPT controller is throttling the energy input into the batteries?

Running a 48V system, AGM battery bank, Mppt 150/100


wysiwyg asked
wysiwyg commented ·

1 Answer

250/100 not recharging fast enough

i have a 250/100 with 7.400 watts and i take 13000 kwh at night so to recharge that . shouldn't take 7 1/2 hrs i think there's something going on, i have 2000 watts on sun up side 2000 on sun down side and the rest for the noon time, should i move them around? thanks for your help

kevin-b asked
solarhack edited ·

3 Answers

Quattro 48/15000/200-2x100 3 Phase Charging Logic Failures

I'm trying to understand / tweak how the charging works for daily solar energy capture. My installer has disappeared and so I know have to try and figure things out myself as they never got around to it.

40kWh Liion EIG cells @ 48v. 27kW peak output from panels.

My issue is the charging logic seems very unpredictable. My theory for how it should work, and how it was explained, is when the solar energy is enough the grid stops being used, and any extra solar starts going into the batteries...up to a amx, and then it starts putting it back into the grid. If there is a cloud and the solar output dips down, the batteries are used to supplement that time period, unless they of course reach their configured minimum (20%)...and when the sun is back, they switch back into charging mode....ideally nearing full capacity so that they can handle the evening hours and night time untilt hey again fall to 20% and it switches back to grid. (Except if the grid is offline, then they are allowed to go down to 0%.)

What I am seeing though is the batteries may start charging, but then a cloud, or some usage causes the available energy to not be enough, and they switch back, and then give up on charging for the rest of the day. The next day it does the same. Even though I have adequate solar all day to charge the batteries to 100%, they never get there, they get to 40% and then slowly discharge at about 800W until the PV energy is too low and then they discharge at a faster rate. Some days I get 40%, some days 70%, and on rare occasions 90%+. But I can't predict it, and it makes no sense to me. Example image from yesterday and the day before...(max on the graph is about 40%)



However today, by 11AM, my batteries are fully charged at 100%, and there was a LOT of clouds on and off this morning. It hits some threshold and decides that is it for the day, and nothing can be done.

The solar room has ventilation and I monitor the temperature and make sure its never exceeding roughly 30C in the room.

Can this logic be changed or improved? What decides when to stop attempting to charge the batteries for the day? Today it did what I would expect...although oddly it appears to have been a little too fast.


Really need an installer who understands Victron..can't find anyone around me willing to help.

spinkb asked
spinkb answered ·

9 Answers

Smart Solar config

I have a 3 bank battery charger on my boat. I have connected my SmartSolar MPPT 100/50 to a Victron FET battery Isolator. I have several questions that I would like to talk / email with technical support.
1) Is this a recommended installation configuration?
2) Is there a problem using this configuration. The controller is only powered when the solar panels can supply power. This is not a perfect situation, but liveable.
2) The Diode in the Victron Isolator prevents battery current from keeping power to the MPPT controller. I do not wish to direct connect a battery to the common terminal on the isolator as this will result in the common connected battery to charge downstream batteries. If a downstream battery fails, this would bring unsatisfactory results. Is there a way to use the alternator energizer to power the controller? Is there another method?
3) If I could get an email address, I could send more detail system schematic for consideration.

lee-toole asked
tozz answered ·

1 Answer

Smart Solar Output Current Limited by What?

Since the Smart Solar MPPTs can be set for a higher maximum output current than their ratings, what actually happens? Can a 50A MPPT be set at 60A, and put out 60A until it overheats and folds back?

mdbrown asked
Matthias Lange - DE answered ·

2 Answers

Smartsolar firmware upgrade problem

So I upgraded my firmware today and now I have no charging . The controller is sensing power from my panels. But I get no output. I have reset it by cutting power both in going and outgoing several times with no help. I did lose all my history and there are no error codes on the app. On the controller the bulk light is flashing once every five seconds. Help

johncapp asked

0 Answers

Low Solar Amp Conversion from Watts?

I'm chasing another problem with this system, that I haven't been able to pin down. I'll give you a short amount of background, in case it's relevant.

The system originally was 2 quattros in parallel, 10 Victron Lithium batteries (300ah) and 8 100/30 mppts. I share this, because I observed in the previous setup before anything was removed...nearly 60amps charging and the owner at that time stated that it would get to 100 on a bright sunny day with no clouds.

As part of buying this boat, the previous owner took one of the quattros and 5 of the batteries. I have replaced that quattro since, so now the setup is

2 quattros in parallel (5000/12/220)

5 x 300ah Victron Lithium

8 mppts connecting about 3k in solar panels.

Here's where the issue comes in. In the middle of the day, when the sun is directly overhead, and I'm generating 1600 watts of soloar (as measured by the quattro on the cerbo screen) - I will barely reach 20amps charging, usually less. My idle draw is about 15 to 20 amps, but its always been that, so observing 60, means the production at that point was 75 to 80. Right now I'd expect 133 amps raw, before any loss or conversion or vodoo that happens between components. I think it's reasonable to guess while generating 1600 watts of solar, that I should see 100 amps (mins 15 to 20 idle)....Am I incorrect?

I know that the mppts will downscale, I've appropriatly measured the battery SOC so they should bulk, measured the temp so there are no temp issues (unless there's some settings that arent correct), and I have access to all the MPPT's through the VRM for their settings if those need tracked down.

I also know how complicated all the settings can be between MPPT's, quattros, batteries...etc. So I'm looking for some help tracking it down. I can been the hammer, just need the person to wield the tool and get me there, or tell me it's working as intended.

Thanks in advance, I love this community and how everyone helps.

P.S - If there's a victron "expert" in the area of Caribbean Martinique (or you are available to fly in) I would absolutely love to talk to you.

Bryan asked
seb71 commented ·

4 Answers

Dvcc with incompatible firmware #48

Just installed 5.21 beta VictronConnect. It upgraded my mppt smart solar to 1.48. my color control has a notification error

system warning Dvcc with incompatible firmware #48

what should I do about this error message?

Jerry L Johnson asked
pierre-joubert answered ·

6 Answers

Using a SmartSolar MPPT 75/15 Charge Controller and Dakota LiFePO4 batteries, what would be the best Load Control setting to power four Dual USB charging outlets?

We are using both a Victron charge controller and Dakota Lithium batteries in one of our solar charging stations. The system will be used for charging smartphones and tablets, with power requirements for these devices ranging from 12W to 25W. Our specific concern relates to charging stations we are getting ready for a high school district where usage could be heavy. The component configuration is:

  • SOLAR ARRAY: 100W (4x 25W mono solar panels, two series in parallel)
  • BATTERY BANK: Two (2) Dakota 12V 10Ah LiFePO4 batteries, wired in series for a 24V system
  • LOAD: Four (4) dual USB/USB-C Charging Outlets

We want to maximize the 240Wh battery bank and are wondering which Load Output configuration would be best. I read in the Victron manual that Setting 2, “Battery Algorithm,” maximizes the life of the batteries but we’re wondering if it will limit the charging capabilities on a busy day leaving substantial capacity unused. And, we wonder whether other settings such as “Always On” or one of the “User Defined Algorithms” would be better suited to our application.

stampy asked
marc-de-montreal answered ·

1 Answer

Do I need a solar regulator with an Orion TR?

I have connected everything according to the instructions. When not connected to the car, the solar is coming in via a voltage relay switch. In the app it's showing 19 volts coming from the solar panel and I'm get the error: 'charging disabled' and 'remote input not activated'.

Am I doing something wrong? Do I need a regulator to bring that voltage from the solar panel down? What am I supposed to do with the jumper?

Help greatly appreciated.



chrisg asked

0 Answers

Victron MPPT Calculator - how does it choose what MPPT to suggest?

Hi guys.

Could someone help me understand the rationale how the MPPT Calculator comes up with the suggestion in the attached screenshot for this array of 4x150W panels and why is it not suggesting the 100/50 (which I have already purchased)? The Max. V in min. temp. stays under 100 AND the MPPT need to limit the output current to 45A, so why not suggest the MPPT 100/50?

Also, are there 'sweet spots' in these MPPT's regarding the V's and A's coming in from the solar and what would these be for the SmartSolar 100/50?

Is there something here that I'm missing / not understanding? Could I still use the MPPT 100/50?

For what it's worth my other van conversion components include MultiPlus 12V 2000/80, Orion-Tr 12-12/30, SmartShunt and Cerbo GX. I'll be storing the energy in two 150Ah LiFePO4 batteries, with max. charge current of 100A each.



mako74 asked
rickp edited ·

1 Answer

What is the resolution / precision of yield calculation on BlueSolar MPPT 75/15

I have a small bilge pump connected directly to a 12V battery. The battery is kept charged with BlueSolar 75/15 and a couple of summer months-worth of data shows regular charge cycles on most days -- the battery spending most of a cycle in float. On those typical days, the yield is reported usually as either 0Wh or 10Wh when there's no other load usage. On non-typical days the yield reported will be higher, but it's always a multiple of 10.

I realize that the actual bilge pump consumption is not calculated by the BlueSolar device since it's not connected to the load port. Based on observation I know the pump runs for a short time every day.

Even on the days when the yield is reported as "zero", the MPPT reports time in each the various charging states converting energy and topping up the battery, so I assume that what is reported as "0" yield, is a small number of Whr, rounded down. Is this assumption correct? Can a more precise number be determined when the yield is close to zero?

powerlink asked

0 Answers

How do I enable Synchronized charging for BlueSolar MPPT?


My question is if there are known problems with synchronized charging between Bluesolar and Smart Solar devices (in my case both mppt100/50)?

I expanded my system with additional panels and a new smart solar mppt 100/50 charger. I already had a Bluesolar charger, also an mppt100/50 with a BT dongle. They are connected together over the VE Smart networking (Bluetooth) for the purpose of synchronized charging. There is also a Smart Voltage/Temperature sensor attached.

As far as I can see the synchronized charging does not work at all. The switch together into absorption mode, but apart from that they behave totally different. Despite having the same settings, the absorption/float times differ sometimes quite drastically.

I have compiled a very detailed description of the setup and the problem. It can be viewed here under this link.

danmannale asked
Thiemo van Engelen (Victron Energy staff) commented ·

3 Answers

Pmax value reported by solar controller higher than panel max

I have 2 300 watt panels hooked in series to my victron solar controller. I would expect to never see more than 600 watts. Occasionally I will see a day where it reports pMax of 635 or some other value greater than 600. How is this possible to see a greater wattage than the theoretical max of the panels?

daniel-chaffee asked
daniel-chaffee commented ·

1 Answer

Smartsolar 150/100 solar watts low

Hi all,

I have read some other posts from people when searching for more information, however they seem to be a bit different to what I am seeing.

I have just installed a Smartsolar 150/100 with 2.5kw of panels connected and a 24V wet cell battery bank.

I have also installed a BMV-712 between batteries and charger so that I can get some rough indication of SOC.

In a totally sunny day where everything should be working fine, the watts coming from the panels is a lot lower than I was used to seeing on the old charge controller, sometimes only around 350w is showing on the solar input section.

The charger is charging the batteries and I can see that it's doing this, and it's sitting in BULK mode.

Other posts I have read have cited the same problem with low wattage from the solar, but when the people check their charger it is actually in FLOAT mode, my charger isn't getting to this mode but seems to be reducing the input from the solar like it seems to do in FLOAT mode.

In checking the history it has actually reached absorption and float mode on a few occasions, but not many, it really should be hitting it every day with the panel capacity, sunlight and battery capacity. Typically I am using about 65 a/h of power a night, this should be replenished pretty quickly realistically with this setup.

I have triple checked settings, connections, everything seems correct.

When I run a load like the microwave or something from the inverter the watts coming from the panels jumps up to more like it should be, so it's like the charger is limiting the charge to the batteries and therefore limiting the wattage it is accepting from the panels.

I have played around with the charge current, it should be around 45A for my battery setup, I have increased it and decreased it but I have never seen the charge current get to more than about 16A according to the controller.

Any thoughts as to what might be going on ?

Thanks for your help.

pjulian asked
pjulian answered ·

2 Answers

power to the battery vs power used from batteries


When I look at the graphic showing the kw that goes to charge the battery and compare ir to the ones used the same day from the battery, there is a big difference. Alsmos doble power goes in that used from batteries.

Why is this?



pablo-cebolla asked
pablo-cebolla commented ·

2 Answers

simple way to switch relay when battery is full and there is solar power available


I´m using a SmartSolar 100/30 and a BMV-700 with additional bluetooth module.

I´d like to switch an external relay to activate a 12V/200W water heater IF the battery is full AND there is solar power available.

I´m quite sure this can´t be done with my current setup (if not so, please tell me... :-) )

My question is if, for example, a VenusGX would be capable of a programming to do so?

schindi77 asked
schindi77 answered ·

2 Answers

Easysolar not sensing solar input

Hi. I’m not expert so this may be a foolish question, but

ive just installed 2 solar panels as a supplementary feed to my easysolar charger/inverter. Other input source is a generator.

Solar voltage is present in connectors at input. Bulk blue led lights up but my colour controller doesn’t acknowledge pv source and so I’m not sure if any charge input is actually being received. Easysolar stays on inverter mode when generator is off - not sure if that should switch to charge given daytime pv panels input

panels are in parallel. Can’t remember specifics but think each 400w and 37v output.

The above is the same whether the generator is on or off.

Any help much appreciated


conallp asked
misullivan answered ·

3 Answers

Can I run a MPPT solar controller and DC-DC charger side by side?

Hi! I have bought a second hand caravan that is fitted with 2 delco 110ah batteries, 4 x 150w panels and a Victron 50A MPPT solar controller. The previous owner had another delco battery in his vehicle and a projector DC-DC 20A charger in his vehicle to charge the van batteries while under tow.

I have bought a Victron Orion-Tr Smart 12 | 12 - 30 isolated DC-DC charger and planned to install it in the van.

Question, can a Victron solar controller and Victron DC-DC charger be installed side by side? Will they play nicely together? I have bought the DC-DC charger based on what the previous owner recommended and I went with Victron due to quality and the fact I can run the same app on my phone to talk to both the DC-DC charger and solar controller.

Many Thanks!!

jd2020 asked
Nickus de Vos answered ·

1 Answer

BlueSolar 75/15 -- 12v PV in to 24v bank?

this has been asked before with no satisfactory and definitive answer:

can a 12V PV maintain a 24V bank?

what does one need to do in order to get this to work? connect the battery first, to establish V being 24V, and then attach the 12V PV to show the input current? is there any built-in buck boost in the BlueSolar 75/15?

I have read that a BlueSolar MPPT 75/15 will only start to charge when the PV output V is 0.5V more than the current battery bank V, then stop when it is under 0.1V, but does that mean that it absolutely will not work as 12/24V dependent/congruent system?

will it work from 24V PV to 12V bank? why not versa vica?


andersonmiles asked

0 Answers

Strange charging behavior, limited power with Pylontech


My system consists of Pylontech US2000B Plus 2.4kWh Li-Ion Battery 8 Modules, Quattro 48V/8000VA/110A-100/100/230V, SmartSolar MPPT Charge Controller 250V/100A-Tr with Pluggable Display, Venus GX and 16x Solar Panels ERA 400W PERC Monocrystalline 24V.

The panels are connected in 4 groups of 4, Then into 2 groups of 8. These groups of 8 are independently switched.

I have a strange situation with charging, I never seem to reach any more than about half of what the panels can produce. So I switched off all the panels until the batteries were at a 30% SOC then waited until the sun was at solar noon. Then I switched on one group of 8 and the charge controller display gave a reading of ~2500w. Switching of this group and then turning on the other group also gave reading of ~2500w. Now this is the strange part, when I have both the groups turned on I still only get ~2500.

Have I missed something in the settings?

Any advice would be gratefully received.


Tony asked
Tony commented ·

1 Answer

Switch from solar to AC charging when batteries are low

I am getting a houseboat which has two small solar panels but nothing in the way of land/AC connections, and I would like to charge the batteries with AC/220V when their level is too low while using solar energy as much as possible.

The load is relatively small, mainly a fridge and the lights. There are two separate batteries for the engine starter and the rest.

Is there such a system that would charge the batteries while making the switch between solar and AC source automatically?

trougnouf asked
trougnouf edited ·

1 Answer

Smart Solar Firmware v2.25 Issues - Going to float too early & not keeping up with demands while in float

Hello, sorry for the long post/question but I wanted to give plenty of information upfront in hopes of a resolution.

I have noticed recently (after the recent firmware update v2.25) that my smart solar mppts are now synchronizing with each other and going into float far too early. Also, while in float, they are not covering power usage like they used to. For example, if a refrigerator compressor kicks on, the solar charge controllers are not compensating for the drop and I see a negative draw on the battery bank in the middle of a sunny day at 2 pm at the equator with full sun on all panels. (I have 5 controllers and one BMV712 battery monitor).

I went into each controller and each said it was networked to the other (NEW), along with the BMV712 using the Battery voltage sense and the external current sense from that monitor (as originally installed). This system was working properly with the connection to the BMV.

Now, while in float, the system is only letting current flow from one solar panel. All of the others were seeing good voltage but not sending any current to the battery bank which should not even have been in float yet. (Yes, I am sure they should not have been in float)

First, for each smart solar controller, I went into settings and in the expert mode, I changed the absorption time to 10 hours fixed. That did not overwrite the floating-issue nor the issue with keeping up with usage.

Next, I went in and turned each charger off and then on again to see if they just needed to be reset for the change to take didn't work

Finally, I un-networked them entirely, they are no longer connected to each other or to the BMV712 and now all controllers are back to absorption. While this is working, I am concerned that they should be still connected to the BMV.

My questions are: Why is the fixed absorption setting not working? Is there some other setting that is overarching and not allowing that setting to take effect?

How can I re-network the BMV without having the float issue return?

Many thanks for any insights,


shellyp81 asked
shellyp81 commented ·

1 Answer

45 Posts
45 Users

Topic Experts

There are currently no experts identified for this topic. Can you answer questions in this topic area? Community members who provide answers that are marked as correct earn reputation and may become recognized as topic experts.